President Taylor rejected the compromise and continued to call for an immediate state for both California and New Mexico.  Senator John C. Calhoun and other leaders of the South argued that the compromise against the South was biased because it would lead to the creation of new free states.  Most North Whigs, led by William Henry Seward, who delivered his famous “Higher Law” speech during the controversy, also rejected the compromise because it would apply the Wilmot Reservation to western territories and because ordinary citizens were put on duty for slave hunting patrols. This provision was inserted by Virginia Democratic Senator James M. Mason attracted the Whigs of the border state, who were at the greatest risk of losing slaves as refugees, but were lukewarm on general southern-related sectional issues over Texas land claims.  The general solution adopted by the compromise of 1850 was to transfer to the federal government a significant part of the territory claimed by the State of Texas; formally organize two new territories, New Mexico and the Utah Territory, which would have to explicitly determine on the spot whether they would become slaves or free territories, add another free state to the Union (California), take a strict measure to recover slaves who had fled to a free state or a free territory (the Runaway Slaves Act); and abolish the slave trade in the District of Columbia. A key provision of each of the laws that organize the New Mexico Territory and the Utah Territory, respectively, was that slavery would be decided by a local option called popular sovereignty. This was a significant rejection of the idea of not prohibiting slavery in a territory acquired by Mexico. However, California`s accession as a free state meant that the countries of the South abandoned their goal of a coastal belt of slave states.
 This guide contains links to digital materials related to the 1850 compromise, available on the Library of Congress website. The guide also contains links to external websites and a selected printed bibliography. After Taylor`s death and replaced by Fillmore, Douglas led the passage of Clay`s compromise by Congress as five separate bills. As part of the compromise, Texas ceded its rights to present-day New Mexico and other states in exchange for the Confederacy taking over of Texas` public debt. California was admitted as a free state, while the other parts of the Mexican cession were organized into the New Mexico territory and Utah territory. Under the concept of popular sovereignty, people in any territory would decide whether slavery is allowed or not. The compromise also provided for a stricter fugitive slave law and banned the slave trade in Washington, D.C. .